The West badly needs a restoration economy

By Jonathan Thompson

Farmington, a city of 45,000 in the northwestern corner of New Mexico, has run on a fossil fuel economy for a century. It is one of the only places on the planet where a 26-kiloton nuclear device was detonated underground to free up natural gas from the rock.

The city’s baseball team was called the Frackers, and a home run hit out of their practice park was likely to land next to a pack of gas wells. The community’s economy and identity are so tied up with fossil fuels that the place should probably try a new name like Carbonton, Methanedale or Drillsville.

Over the last decade, however, the oil and gas rollercoaster here has shuddered nearly to a halt, and one of two giant coal-fired power plants is about to shut down. The carbon corporations that have been exploiting the local labor and landscape for decades are fleeing, taking thousands of jobs with them. Left behind are gaping coal-mine wounds, rotting infrastructure and well-pad scars oozing methane.

The pattern of abandonment is mirrored in communities from Wyoming to Utah to Western Colorado to the Navajo Nation. Community leaders scramble to find solutions. Some cling to what they know, throwing their weight behind schemes to keep coal viable, such as carbon capture, while others bank on outdoor recreation, tourism and cottage industries.

Yet one solution to the woes rarely comes up in these conversations: Restoration as economic development.

Why not put unemployed miners and drillers back to work reclaiming closed coal mines and plugging up idled or low-producing oil and gas wells?

The EPA estimates that there are some 2 million unplugged abandoned wells nationwide, many of them leaking methane, the greenhouse gas with 86 times the warming potential of carbon dioxide, along with health-harming volatile organic compounds and even deadly hydrogen sulfide.

Hundreds of thousands of additional wells are still active, yet have been idled or are marginal producers, and they will also need plugging and reclaiming.

Oilfield service companies and their employees have the skills and equipment needed and could go back to work immediately. A 2020 report from the Columbia Center on Global Energy Policy found that a nationwide well-plugging program could employ more than 100,000 high-wage workers.

Massive coal mines are also shutting down and will need to be reclaimed. Northern Arizona’s Kayenta Mine, owned by coal-giant Peabody, shut down in late 2019, along with the Navajo Generating Station, resulting in the loss of nearly 300 jobs. The Western Organization of Resource Councils estimated that proper reclamation of the mine could keep most of those miners employed for an additional two to three years.

Peabody, however, still has not begun to meet its reclamation obligations. This is a failure not only on Peabody’s part but also of the federal mining regulators who should be holding the company’s feet to the fire.

Who will pay for all of this? Mining and drilling companies are required to put up financial bonds in order to get development permits, and they’re forfeited if the companies fail to properly reclaim the well or mine. Unfortunately, these bonds are almost always inadequate.

A Government Accountability Office report found that the Bureau of Land Management held about $2,000 in bonds, on average, for each well on federal land. Yet the cost to plug and reclaim each well ranges from $20,000 to $145,000. An example: In New Mexico, a company can put up as little as $2,500 per well that costs at least $35,000 to plug.

Colorado Democratic Sen. Michael Bennet tried to remedy this last year by crafting a bill that would increase bonds and create a fund for plugging abandoned wells. Republicans kept the bill from progressing, but with an administration that touted reclamation of mines and abandoned wells in a climate-related executive order, and a new Senate in place, the bill stands a good chance of going forward.

Economic development focusing on restoring the land once miners leave is a natural fit for beleaguered towns suffering the latest bust. Plus, by patching up the torn landscape these communities will help clear the path for other types of economic development, such as tourism or recreation.

“Restoration work is not fixing beautiful machinery … It is accepting an abandoned responsibility,” wrote Barry Lopez, the renowned nature writer who died recently. “It is a humble and often joyful mending of biological ties, with a hope clearly recognized that working from this foundation we might, too, begin to mend human society.”

Photograph courtesy of Allan Nash, open pit coal mine in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin

This column was published in the following newspapers:

02/22/2021 Steamboat Pilot Steamboat Springs CO
02/22/2021 Vail Daily Vail CO
02/23/2021 Twin Falls Times News Twin Falls ID
02/23/2021 High Country News Paonia CO
02/23/2021 Wyofile WY
02/23/2021 Salt Lake Tribune Salt Lake City UT
02/23/2021 Whitehall Ledger Whitehall MT
02/23/2021 Fort Morgan Times Fort Morgan CO
02/23/2021 Park Record Park City UT
02/24/2021 Sterling Journal-Advocate Sterling CO
02/24/2021 Rock Springs Rocket Miner Rock Springs WY
02/24/2021 Montrose Daily Press Montrose CO
02/24/2021 Leadville Herald-Democrat Leadville CO
02/25/2021 Craig Daily Press Craig OR
02/25/2021 Durango Herald Durango CO
02/25/2021 Big Horn County News Hardin MT
02/25/2021 Las Vegas Sun Las Vegas NV
02/25/2021 Moab Times Independent Moab UT
02/25/2021 Grand Junction Daily Sentinel Grand Junction CO
02/28/2021 Lake Havasu News Lake Havasu City AZ
02/28/2021 Logan Herald Journal Logan UT
03/01/2021 Rio Blanco Herald Times Meeker CO
03/02/2021 Wyoming Tribune Eagle Cheyenne WY
03/02/2021 Pagosa Springs Sun Pagosa Springs CO
03/04/2021 Curry Coastal Pilot Brookings OR
03/11/2021 Boulder Weekly Boulder CO
03/16/2021 Pikes Peak Courier Woodland CO
03/29/2021 Gallup Independent Gallup NM

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